Document
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 FORM 10-Q 
(Mark One)
x QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2016
OR
 
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission file number 001-35108
 SERVICESOURCE INTERNATIONAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in our charter)
Delaware
No. 81-0578975
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
760 Market Street, 4th Floor
San Francisco, California
94102
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(Zip Code)
(415) 901-6030
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
¨
Accelerated filer
x
Non-accelerated filer
¨  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practical date:
 
Class
Outstanding as of July 29, 2016
Common Stock
85,803,562



Table of Contents

SERVICESOURCE INTERNATIONAL, INC.
Form 10-Q
INDEX
 
 
Page
No.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Financial Statements
SERVICESOURCE INTERNATIONAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
 
June 30,
2016
 
December 31,
2015
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
55,296

 
$
72,334

Short-term investments
138,746

 
136,378

Accounts receivable, net
54,561

 
56,563

Deferred income taxes
97

 
97

Prepaid expenses and other
7,242

 
8,167

Total current assets
255,942

 
273,539

Property and equipment, net
34,340

 
25,903

Deferred income taxes, net of current portion
169

 
1,759

Goodwill and intangibles, net
8,688

 
9,444

Other assets, net
7,677

 
6,919

Total assets
$
306,816

 
$
317,564

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
2,310

 
$
1,067

Accrued taxes
896

 
1,112

Accrued compensation and benefits
22,467

 
22,116

Deferred revenue
5,480

 
5,770

Accrued expenses
5,818

 
4,716

Other current liabilities
2,559

 
2,327

Total current liabilities
39,530

 
37,108

Obligations under capital leases, net of current portion
153

 
198

Convertible notes, net
130,299

 
126,051

Other long-term liabilities
6,409

 
6,232

Total liabilities
176,391

 
169,589

Commitments and contingencies (Note 7)

 

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Common stock; $0.0001 par value; 1,000,000 shares authorized; 85,656 shares issued and 85,535 shares outstanding as of June 30, 2016; 86,893 shares issued and 86,772 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2015
8

 
8

Treasury stock
(441
)
 
(441
)
Additional paid-in capital
328,916

 
331,922

Accumulated deficit
(198,296
)
 
(183,941
)
Accumulated other comprehensive income
238

 
427

Total stockholders’ equity
130,425

 
147,975

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
306,816

 
$
317,564

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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SERVICESOURCE INTERNATIONAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2016
 
2015
Net revenue
$
61,969

 
$
61,613

 
$
121,719

 
$
127,810

Cost of revenue
40,344

 
42,692

 
81,778

 
88,507

Gross profit
21,625

 
18,921

 
39,941

 
39,303

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
11,326

 
10,165

 
21,779

 
21,000

Research and development
2,016

 
4,646

 
4,180

 
9,468

General and administrative
11,552

 
10,701

 
23,595

 
22,866

Restructuring and other

 
2,988

 

 
3,739

Total operating expenses
24,894

 
28,500

 
49,554

 
57,073

Loss from operations
(3,269
)
 
(9,579
)
 
(9,613
)
 
(17,770
)
Interest expense and other, net
(1,700
)
 
(2,739
)
 
(3,209
)
 
(4,584
)
Loss before income taxes
(4,969
)
 
(12,318
)
 
(12,822
)
 
(22,354
)
Income tax provision
249

 
1,134

 
1,537

 
1,313

Net loss
$
(5,218
)
 
$
(13,452
)
 
$
(14,359
)
 
$
(23,667
)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted
$
(0.06
)
 
$
(0.16
)
 
$
(0.17
)
 
$
(0.28
)
Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted
85,413

 
85,072

 
85,747

 
84,665

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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SERVICESOURCE INTERNATIONAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2016
 
2015
Net loss
$
(5,218
)
 
$
(13,452
)
 
$
(14,359
)
 
$
(23,667
)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
(703
)
 
352

 
(1,119
)
 
105

Unrealized gain (loss) on short-term investments, net of tax
(169
)
 
(261
)
 
930

 
113

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
(872
)
 
91

 
(189
)
 
218

Total comprehensive loss
$
(6,090
)
 
$
(13,361
)
 
$
(14,548
)
 
$
(23,449
)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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SERVICESOURCE INTERNATIONAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
Cash flows from operating activities
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(14,359
)
 
$
(23,667
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
7,564

 
6,783

Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs
4,247

 
3,903

Accretion of premium on short-term investments and other
554

 
(497
)
Deferred income taxes
855

 
1,070

Stock-based compensation
5,195

 
7,544

Restructuring and other

 
3,450

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable, net
2,287

 
11,754

Deferred revenue
(303
)
 
338

Prepaid expenses and other
61

 
(852
)
Accounts payable
766

 
(2,064
)
Accrued taxes
(231
)
 
(555
)
Accrued compensation and benefits
317

 
(1,570
)
Accrued expenses
1,031

 
(2,448
)
Other liabilities
336

 
125

Net cash provided by operating activities
8,320

 
3,314

Cash flows from investing activities
 
 
 
Acquisition of property and equipment
(14,316
)
 
(5,114
)
Restricted cash

 
(1,244
)
Purchases of short-term investments
(55,133
)
 
(51,074
)
Sales of short-term investments
53,361

 
40,194

Maturities of short-term investments
350

 
290

Net cash used in investing activities
(15,738
)
 
(16,948
)
Cash flows from financing activities
 
 
 
Repayment on capital leases obligations
(103
)
 
(91
)
Repurchase of common stock
(8,921
)
 

Proceeds from common stock issuances
739

 
944

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
(8,285
)
 
853

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
(15,703
)
 
(12,781
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
(1,335
)
 
444

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
72,334

 
90,382

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
$
55,296

 
$
78,045

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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SERVICESOURCE INTERNATIONAL, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Note 1 — Description of Business and Basis of Presentation

ServiceSource International, Inc. (together with its subsidiaries, the “Company”) is a global leader in customer and revenue lifecycle solutions that power enterprise revenue relationships, partnering with business to business technology and technology-enabled companies to optimize maintenance, support and subscription revenue streams, while also improving end customer relationships and loyalty. The Company delivers these results via dedicated service teams and integral cloud-based technologies, leveraging benchmarks and best-practices derived from its rich database of service and renewal behavior. By integrating managed services, cloud software and data, the Company provides its clients with insights into their end customers' businesses, end-to-end management and optimization of the service-contract renewals process and customer success activities, including data management, quoting, selling and recurring revenue business intelligence. The Company receives commissions from its clients based on renewal sales that the Company generates on their behalf under a pay-for-performance or flat-rate model. In addition, the Company also provides a purpose-built cloud application to maximize the renewal of subscriptions, maintenance and support contracts and receives subscription fees from its clients for the SaaS product. The Company’s corporate headquarters is located in San Francisco, California. The Company has additional U.S. offices in Colorado, Tennessee and Washington, and international offices in Bulgaria, Ireland, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and the United Kingdom.

The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements (“condensed consolidated financial statements”) include the accounts of ServiceSource International, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("U.S. GAAP” or “GAAP”) for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X, without audit. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information required by U.S. GAAP for annual financial statements. The unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2015 has been derived from the Company's audited annual consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") on March 8, 2016. These condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read in conjunction with our annual consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2015, included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K.
In the opinion of management, these condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, including normal recurring adjustments, management considers necessary for a fair statement of the Company's financial position, operating results, and cash flows for the interim periods presented. Preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates. Also, the results for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results for the entire year.

The Company’s Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") is its chief operating decision maker. The CEO historically managed the Company as two reportable segments: Managed Services and Cloud and Business Intelligence ("CBI") based on the discrete financial information available for each segment.  However, during the second half of 2015, the Company began implementing a series of actions to emphasize a one-company, single go-to-market strategy for its services offering that resulted in the reorganization of its CBI personnel and sales team delivery structure. The objective of these actions was to more closely integrate and support the Managed Services organization with the Company’s cloud technologies and to eliminate new stand-alone CBI cloud offerings. Further, due to this reorganization and shift to a single go-to-market strategy, discrete cost information was no longer separately available for the former CBI segment. Consequently, beginning in the first quarter of 2016, the CEO manages and allocates resources on a company-wide basis as a single segment that is focused on service offerings which integrate data, processes and cloud technologies.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standard Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in the FASB's Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 605, Revenue Recognition. This ASU is based on the principle that revenue is recognized to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The ASU also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including

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significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. In July 2015, the FASB approved a one year deferral of the effective date to December 15, 2017, and early application would be permitted, but not before the original effective date of December 15, 2016, so the effective date will be the first quarter of fiscal year 2018 using one of two retrospective application methods. The Company is currently evaluating the impact ASU No. 2014-09 will have on its consolidated financial statements.

In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-05, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal Use Software, which provides guidance to customers about whether a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license. If a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license, the update specifies that the customer should account for the software license element of the arrangement consistent with the acquisition of other software licenses. The update further specifies that the customer should account for a cloud computing arrangement as a service contract if the arrangement does not include a software license. ASU No. 2015-05 is effective for the Company in fiscal year 2016. An entity can elect to adopt the amendments either (1) prospectively to all arrangements entered into or materially modified after the effective date or (2) retrospectively. The Company has historically accounted for its cloud computing arrangements as a service contract. Consequently, adoption of ASU No. 2015-05 had no impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes, which requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities to be classified as noncurrent in the consolidated balance sheet. The standard will be effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted for financial statements that have not been previously issued. The standard may be applied either prospectively to all deferred tax assets and liabilities or retrospectively to all periods presented. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that adoption of ASU No. 2015-17 will have on its consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02 Leases (Topic 842). This standard requires entities that lease assets to recognize on the balance sheet the assets and liabilities for the rights and obligations created by those leases. The standard is effective for fiscal years and the interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. The guidance is required to be applied by the modified retrospective transition approach. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this authoritative guidance on its consolidated financial statements.    

In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. This standard simplifies and clarifies certain aspects of share-based payment accounting and presentation. The standard is effective for fiscal years and the interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016 with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that adoption of ASU 2016-09 will have on its consolidated financial statements.
Reclassifications
Amounts shown in Other assets, net, on the Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2015 have been reclassified to Convertible notes, net, to reflect the current period presentation as a result of the adoption of ASU No. 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Cost, which requires that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability. See Note 6 - Debt.
Correction to Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2015
Subsequent to the issuance of the Company’s 2015 consolidated financial statements, management determined that its net deferred tax asset valuation allowance was incorrectly computed and recorded for the periods ending December 31, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 and March 31, 2016. This error was due to the incorrect netting of an indefinite-lived deferred tax liability related to tax-deductible goodwill against certain deferred tax assets that the Company believed more likely than not would not be realized. In order to be a source of future taxable income to support realizability of a deferred tax asset, a taxable temporary difference must reverse in a period such that it would result in the realization of the deferred tax asset. Taxable temporary differences related to indefinite-lived intangibles and tax-deductible goodwill are problematic in this regard as, by their nature, they are not predicted to reverse (commonly referred to as naked credits). While such temporary differences would reverse on impairment or sale of the related assets, those events are not anticipated under ASC 740 Income taxes (“ASC 740”) for purposes of predicting the reversal of the related taxable temporary difference. As a result, the reversal of taxable temporary differences with respect to indefinite-lived assets and tax-deductible goodwill should not be considered a source of future taxable income when evaluating and calculating a valuation allowance in accordance with ASC 740. The cumulative error beginning in 2012 totaled $2.2 million at March 31, 2016 and $2.1 million at December 31, 2015.

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In evaluating whether the previously issued financial statements were materially misstated, the Company followed the guidance of ASC 250, Accounting Changes and Error Corrections, SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin ("SAB") Topic 1.M, Assessing Materiality, and SAB Topic 1.N, Considering the Effects of Prior Year Misstatements when Quantifying Misstatements in Current Year Financial Statements. The Company concluded that the error was not material to the affected prior periods. However, correction of the entire cumulative error in the second quarter of 2016 would be material to that quarter's three and six months results and would impact comparisons to prior quarters. As a result, certain amounts presented in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements have been revised from the amounts previously reported to correct this error as shown in the table below and as included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2016.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2015 (in thousands):
 
 As Previously Reported
 
 Corrections
 
As Revised
Other long term liabilities
$
4,113

 
$
2,119

 
$
6,232

Total liabilities
167,470

 
2,119

 
169,589

Accumulated deficit
(181,822
)
 
(2,119
)
 
(183,941
)
Total stockholders' equity
150,094

 
(2,119
)
 
147,975

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
317,564

 

 
317,564


Correction to Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations, Comprehensive Income (Loss) and Cash Flows for the periods ended June 30, 2015
The Company has restated certain amounts in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2015 to correct income tax expense related to the valuation allowance calculation error discussed above, so that such adjustment is recorded in the proper period. The Company believes this correction is not material to its previously issued annual and interim consolidated financial statements.
The effects of correcting the valuation allowance calculation error are as follows:
Additional income tax expense of $0.1 million and $0.1 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, respectively, has been recorded;
Net loss increases $0.1 million and $0.1 million in the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, respectively; and
Net loss per share, basic and diluted remain unchanged.

The following tables summarize the effects of the correction on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations for three and six months ended June 30, 2015 (in thousands):
 
 For the Three Months Ended June 30, 2015
 
 As Previously Reported
 
 Corrections
 
 As Revised
Loss before income taxes
$
(12,318
)
 
$

 
$
(12,318
)
Income tax provision
1,089

 
45

 
1,134

Net loss
$
(13,407
)
 
$
(45
)
 
$
(13,452
)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted
$
(0.16
)
 
$

 
$
(0.16
)
Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted
85,072

 

 
85,072


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 For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2015
 
 As Previously Reported
 
 Corrections
 
 As Revised
Loss before income taxes
$
(22,354
)
 
$

 
$
(22,354
)
Income tax provision
1,223

 
90

 
1,313

Net loss
$
(23,577
)
 
$
(90
)
 
$
(23,667
)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted
$
(0.28
)
 
$

 
$
(0.28
)
Weighted average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted
84,665

 

 
84,665


The following tables summarize the effects of the corrections on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 (in thousands):
 
 For the Three Months Ended June 30, 2015
 
 As Previously Reported
 
 Corrections
 
 As Revised
Net loss
$
(13,407
)
 
$
(45
)
 
$
(13,452
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
352

 

 
352

Unrealized gain (loss) on short-term investments
(261
)
 

 
(261
)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
91

 

 
91

Total comprehensive loss
$
(13,316
)
 
$
(45
)
 
$
(13,361
)
 
 For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2015
 
 As Previously Reported
 
 Corrections
 
 As Revised
Net loss
$
(23,577
)
 
$
(90
)
 
$
(23,667
)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
105

 

 
105

Unrealized gain (loss) on short-term investments
113

 

 
113

Other comprehensive income (loss)
218

 

 
218

Total comprehensive loss
$
(23,359
)
 
$
(90
)
 
$
(23,449
)

The following tables summarize the effects of the corrections on the Company’s condensed consolidated statement of cash flows for the six months ended June 30, 2015 (in thousands):

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For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2015
Cash flows from operating activities
 As Previously Reported
 
 Corrections
 
 As Revised
Net loss
$
(23,577
)
 
$
(90
)
 
$
(23,667
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
6,783

 

 
6,783

Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs
3,903

 

 
3,903

Accretion of premium on short-term investments and other
(497
)
 

 
(497
)
Deferred income taxes
980

 
90

 
1,070

Stock-based compensation
7,544

 

 
7,544

Restructuring and other
3,450

 

 
3,450

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:


 


 


Accounts receivable, net
11,754

 

 
11,754

Deferred revenue
338

 

 
338

Prepaid expenses and other
(852
)
 

 
(852
)
Accounts payable
(2,064
)
 

 
(2,064
)
Accrued taxes
(555
)
 

 
(555
)
Accrued compensation and benefits
(1,570
)
 

 
(1,570
)
Accrued expenses
(2,448
)
 

 
(2,448
)
Other liabilities
125

 

 
125

Net cash provided by operating activities
$
3,314

 
$

 
$
3,314

Note 2 — Cash, Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments

Cash equivalents consist of highly liquid fixed-income investments with original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase, including money market funds. Short-term investments consist of readily marketable securities with a remaining maturity of more than three months from time of purchase. The Company classifies all of its cash equivalents and short-term investments as “available for sale,” as these investments are free of trading restrictions and are available for use in the Company's daily operations. These marketable securities are carried at fair value, with the unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, reported as accumulated other comprehensive income and included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. Gains and losses are recognized when realized. When the Company determines that other-than-temporary declines in fair value have occurred, the amount of the decline that is related to a credit loss is recognized in earnings. Gains and losses are determined using the specific identification method. The Company’s realized gains and losses in the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015 were insignificant.
Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments consisted of the following as of June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015 (in thousands):

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June 30, 2016
 
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Unrealized
Gains
 
Unrealized
Losses
 
Estimated
Fair Value
Cash
$
55,080

 
$

 
$

 
$
55,080

Cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money market mutual funds
216

 

 

 
216

Total cash and cash equivalents
55,296

 

 

 
55,296

Short-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate bonds
55,012

 
279

 
(25
)
 
55,266

U.S. agency securities
33,458

 
239

 

 
33,697

Asset-backed securities
27,773

 
118

 
(3
)
 
27,888

U.S. Treasury securities
21,756

 
143

 
(4
)
 
21,895

Total short-term investments
137,999

 
779

 
(32
)
 
138,746

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments
$
193,295

 
$
779

 
$
(32
)
 
$
194,042

December 31, 2015
 
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Unrealized
Gains
 
Unrealized
Losses
 
Estimated
Fair Value
Cash
$
72,105

 
$

 
$

 
$
72,105

Cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Money market mutual funds
229

 

 

 
229

Total cash and cash equivalents
72,334

 

 

 
72,334

Short-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate bonds
54,434

 

 
(389
)
 
54,045

U.S. agency securities
36,010

 

 
(187
)
 
35,823

Asset-backed securities
30,665

 

 
(132
)
 
30,533

U.S. Treasury securities
16,024

 

 
(47
)
 
15,977

Total short-term investments
137,133

 

 
(755
)
 
136,378

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments
$
209,467

 
$

 
$
(755
)
 
$
208,712

The following table summarizes the amortized cost and estimated fair value of money market mutual funds and short-term fixed income securities classified as short-term investments based on stated maturities as of June 30, 2016 (in thousands): 
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Estimated
Fair Value
Less than 1 year
$
14,440

 
$
14,429

Due in 1 to 3 years
123,775

 
124,533

Total
$
138,215

 
$
138,962

As of June 30, 2016, the Company did not consider any of its investments to be other-than-temporarily impaired.
Note 3 — Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The Company measures certain financial instruments at fair value on a recurring basis. The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in the valuation methodologies in measuring fair value:
Level 1 valuations are based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.


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Level 2 valuations are based on inputs that are observable, either directly or indirectly, other than quoted prices included within Level 1. Such inputs used in determining fair value for Level 2 valuations include quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 valuations are based on information that is unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement.
All of the Company’s cash equivalents and short-term investments are classified within Level 1 or Level 2.
The following table presents information about the Company’s financial instruments that are measured at fair value as of June 30, 2016 and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation (in thousands):
 
 
Total
 
Quoted Prices
in Active
Markets for
Identical
Assets
(Level 1)
 
Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
Cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
Money market mutual funds
$
216

 
$
216

 
$

Total cash equivalents
216

 
216

 

Short-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate bonds
55,266

 

 
55,266

U.S. agency securities
33,697

 

 
33,697

Asset-backed securities
27,888

 

 
27,888

U.S. Treasury securities
21,895

 

 
21,895

Total short-term investments
138,746

 

 
138,746

Cash equivalents and short-term investments
$
138,962

 
$
216

 
$
138,746

The Company has restricted cash of $1.2 million within Other assets as of June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015. The restricted cash is classified within Level 1.
The following table presents information about the Company’s financial instruments that are measured at fair value as of December 31, 2015 and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation (in thousands):
 
 
Total
 
Quoted Prices
in Active
Markets for
Identical
Assets
(Level 1)
 
Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs
(Level 2)
Cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
Money market mutual funds
$
229

 
$
229

 
$

Total cash equivalents
229

 
229

 

Short-term investments:
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate bonds
54,045

 

 
54,045

U.S. agency securities
35,823

 

 
35,823

Asset-backed securities
30,533

 

 
30,533

U.S. Treasury securities
15,977

 

 
15,977

Total short-term investments
136,378

 

 
136,378

Cash equivalents and short-term investments
$
136,607

 
$
229

 
$
136,378


The convertible notes issued by the Company in August 2013 are shown on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets at their original issuance value, net of unamortized discount, and are not marked to market each period. The approximate

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fair value of the convertible notes as of June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015 was $131.3 million and $126.0 million, respectively. The fair value of the convertible notes was determined using quoted market prices for similar securities, which, due to limited trading activity, are considered Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
The Company did not have any other financial instruments or long-term debt measured at fair value as of June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015.
Note 4 — Other Current Liabilities

Other current liabilities balances were comprised of the following (in thousands): 
 
June 30,
2016
 
December 31,
2015
Accrued Interest - Convertible Notes
$
937

 
$
948

Deferred Rent
904

 
738

ESPP Withholding
718

 
641

Total
$
2,559

 
$
2,327

Note 5 — Credit Facility and Capital Leases
Letter of Credit
On February 3, 2015, the Company issued a $1.2 million letter of credit in connection with a lease for a new San Francisco facility. The letter of credit is secured by $1.2 million of a money market account which is classified as restricted cash in other current assets, in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Capital Leases
The Company has capital lease agreements totaling $0.2 million that are collateralized by the underlying property and equipment and expire through September 2019. The weighted-average imputed interest rates for the capital lease agreements were 2.9% and 5.4% at June 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Note 6 — Debt
Senior Convertible Notes
In August 2013, the Company issued senior convertible notes (the “Notes”) in exchange for gross proceeds of $150.0 million.
The Notes are governed by an Indenture, dated August 13, 2013 (the “Indenture”), between the Company and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as trustee. The Notes will mature on August 1, 2018, unless earlier repurchased or converted, and bear interest at a rate of 1.50% per year payable semi-annually in arrears on February 1 and August 1, beginning February 1, 2014.
The Notes are convertible at an initial conversion rate of 61.6770 of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of Notes, which represents an initial conversion price of approximately $16.21 per share of common stock, subject to anti-dilution adjustments upon certain specified events as defined in the Indenture. Upon conversion, the Notes will be settled in cash, shares of the Company’s common stock, or any combination thereof, at the Company’s option.
Prior to February 1, 2018, the Notes are convertible only upon the following circumstances:
during any calendar quarter commencing after December 31, 2013, (and only during such calendar quarter), if for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during the period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter, the last reported sale price of common stock on such trading day is greater than or equal to 130% of the applicable conversion price on such trading day;
during the five business day period after any five consecutive trading day period in which the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of the Notes for each trading day of that five consecutive trading day period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price of common stock and the applicable conversion rate on each such trading day; or
upon the occurrence of specified corporate events described in the Indenture.

14


Holders of the Notes may convert their Notes at any time on or after February 1, 2018, until the close of business on the second schedule trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, regardless of the foregoing circumstances.
The holders of the Notes may require the Company to repurchase all or a portion of their Notes at a cash repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes being repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, upon a fundamental change as defined in the Indenture. In addition, upon certain events of default as defined in the Indenture, the trustee, or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Notes may declare 100% of the principal amount of the Notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the Notes to be due and payable. In case of certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization involving the Company, 100% of the principal of and accrued and unpaid interest on the Notes will automatically become due and payable. The Notes were not subject to conversion or repurchase at June 30, 2016.
To account for the Notes at issuance, the Company separated the Notes into debt and equity components pursuant to the accounting standards for convertible debt instruments that may be fully or partially settled in cash upon conversion. The fair value of debt component was estimated using an interest rate for nonconvertible debt, with terms similar to the Notes, excluding the conversion feature. The carrying amount of the liability component was calculated by measuring the fair value of a similar liability that does not have an associated convertible feature. The excess of the principal amount of the Notes over the fair value of the debt component was recorded as a debt discount and a corresponding increase in additional paid-in capital. The debt discount is accreted to interest expense over the term of the Notes using the interest method. The amount recorded to additional paid-in capital is not to be remeasured as long as it continues to meet the conditions of equity classification. Upon issuance of the $150.0 million of Notes, the Company recorded $111.5 million to debt and $38.5 million to additional paid-in capital.
The Company incurred transaction costs of approximately $4.9 million related to the issuance of the Notes. In accounting for these costs, the Company allocated the costs to the debt and equity components in proportion to the allocation of proceeds from the issuance of the Notes to such components. Transaction costs allocated to the debt component of $3.6 million were recorded as a deferred asset in other assets, net, and amortized to interest expense over the term of the Notes. As a result of the adoption of ASU No. 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Cost, these costs were reclassified to Convertible Notes, net, as of December 31, 2015. The transaction costs allocated to the equity component of $1.3 million were recorded to additional paid-in capital.
The net carrying amount of the liability component of the Notes consists of the following (in thousands):
 
June 30, 2016

 
December 31, 2015

Principal amount
$
150,000

 
$
150,000

Unamortized debt discount
(18,022
)
 
(21,908
)
Unamortized debt issuance costs
(1,679
)
 
(2,041
)
Net carrying amount
$
130,299

 
$
126,051

The following table presents the interest expense recognized related to the Notes (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2016
 
2015
Contractual interest expense at 1.5% per annum
$
563

 
$
563

 
$
1,125

 
$
1,125

Amortization of debt issuance costs
183

 
169

 
362

 
333

Accretion of debt discount
1,961

 
1,815

 
3,886

 
3,571

Total
$
2,707

 
$
2,547

 
$
5,373

 
$
5,029

The net proceeds from the Notes were approximately $145.1 million after payment of the initial purchasers' discount and offering expense. The Company used approximately $31.4 million of the net proceeds from the Notes to pay the cost of the Note Hedges described below, which was partially offset by $21.8 million of the proceeds from the Company's sale of the Warrants also described below.
Note Hedges
Concurrent with the issuance of the Notes, the Company entered into note hedges (“Note Hedges”) with certain bank counterparties, with respect to its common stock. The Company paid $31.4 million for the Note Hedges. The Note Hedges cover approximately 9.25 million shares of the Company's common stock at a strike price of $16.21 per share. The Note

15


Hedges will expire upon the maturity of the Notes. The Note Hedges are intended to reduce the potential dilution to the Company's common stock upon conversion of the Notes and/or offset the cash payment in excess of the principal amount of the Notes the Company is required to make in the event that the market value per share of the Company's common stock at the time of exercise is greater than the conversion price of the Notes.
Warrants
Separately, the Company entered into warrant transactions, whereby it sold warrants to the same bank counterparties as the Note Hedges to acquire approximately 9.25 million shares of the Company's common stock at an initial strike price of $21.02 per share (“Warrants”), subject to anti-dilution adjustments. The Company received proceeds of approximately $21.8 million from the sale of the Warrants. If the fair value per share of the Company's common stock exceeds the strike price of the Warrants, the Warrants will have a dilutive effect on earnings per share, unless the Company elects, subject to certain conditions, to settle the Warrants in cash.
The amounts paid and received for the Note Hedges and the Warrants have been recorded in additional paid-in capital. The fair value of the Note Hedges and the Warrants are not remeasured through earnings each reporting period.
Note 7 — Commitments and Contingencies
Operating Leases
The Company leases its office space and certain equipment under noncancelable operating lease agreements with various expiration dates through November 30, 2022. Rent expense for the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015 was $2.8 million and $2.6 million, respectively, and for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015 was $5.4 million and $4.8 million, respectively. The Company recognizes rent expense on a straight-line basis over the lease period and accrues for rent expense incurred but not paid.
In April 2016, the Company signed a 6-year office lease expiring in July 2022, for a new international sales center in Singapore to occupy 17,626 square feet. The total minimum lease payments are estimated to be approximately $4.8 million over the lease term.
In July 2016, the Company signed a 5-year office lease expiring in December 2021, for an additional floor in the existing service delivery center in the Philippines to occupy 21,915 square feet. The total minimum lease payments are estimated to be approximately $3.5 million over the lease term.
Litigation
On July 8, 2015, a single plaintiff filed a putative securities class action lawsuit, Weller v. ServiceSource International, Inc. et al., in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (the “Weller Lawsuit”) against the Company and the Company’s former Chief Executive Officer. The Weller Lawsuit was brought on behalf of purchasers of Company stock during the period January 22, 2014 through May 1, 2014, and alleges violations under Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act").   In connection with the mandatory lead plaintiff appointment process under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act ("PSLRA"), various law firms issued press releases between July 2015 and September 2015 to search for additional shareholders that would be willing to serve as lead plaintiffs in this lawsuit.  This solicitation period ended on September 29, 2015 and no other shareholders came forward, leaving only the named plaintiff as the sole shareholder seeking to be appointed lead plaintiff. The court appointed Weller a lead plaintiff on October 21, 2015. At this time, no motion to certify a class has been filed. The Company believes that the claims are meritless, and will vigorously defend itself against such claims. On December 9, 2015, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the Weller Lawsuit.  The motion has been fully briefed, and the parties are awaiting a ruling from the court.
From time to time, the Company may be subject to other litigation or threatened litigation arising in the ordinary course of our business. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, the Company is currently not aware of any litigation or threats of litigation in which the final outcome could have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results, financial position, or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on the Company because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, and other factors. The Company records a contingent liability when it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount is reasonably estimable in accordance with accounting for contingencies.
Note 8 - Share Repurchase Program, Stock-Based Compensation and ESPP

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In August 2015, the Board authorized a stock repurchase program (the "program") with a maximum authorization to repurchase up to $30.0 million worth of common stock of the Company. The program expires in August 2017. The aggregate amount available under the program was approximately $19.9 million as of June 30, 2016. The share repurchase program does not obligate the Company to acquire any specific number of shares. Under the program, shares may be repurchased in privately negotiated and/or open market transactions, including under plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act. The Company cash settles with the program broker periodically and reflects any unsettled amounts as a current liability at each period end.
The following shares of common stock were repurchased under the above-described repurchase plan:
 
Number of Shares (in thousands)
 
Weighted Average Repurchase Price Per Share
 
Amount (includes commissions) (in thousands)
2016:
 
     Second quarter
428

 
$
3.88

 
$
1,661

     First quarter
1,835

 
3.96

 
7,260

 
 
 
 
 
 
2015:
 
 
 
 
 
     Fourth quarter
136

 
$
4.09

 
$
557

     Third Quarter
159

 
4.12

 
655

Total common stock repurchases under the program
2,558

 
 
 
$
10,133

The following table summarizes the consolidated stock-based compensation expense included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):
 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2016
 
2015
Cost of revenue
$
379

 
$
659

 
$
847

 
$
1,495

Sales and marketing
726

 
716

 
1,588

 
1,647

Research and development
144

 
444

 
341

 
991

General and administrative
1,087

 
1,158

 
2,419

 
3,411

Total stock-based compensation
$
2,336

 
$
2,977

 
$
5,195

 
$
7,544

The above table does not include $0.1 million and $0.3 million of capitalized stock-based compensation related to internal-use software during the three and six months ended June 30, 2016. There was no capitalized stock-based compensation related to internal-use software during the three and six months ended June 30, 2015.
Determining Fair Value of Stock Awards
The Company estimates the fair value of stock option awards at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. Options are granted with an exercise price equal to the fair value of the common stock as of the date of grant. Compensation expense is amortized net of estimated forfeitures on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the options, which is generally four years. Restricted stock, upon vesting, entitles the holder to one share of common stock for each restricted stock unit or award, and has a purchase price of $0.0001 per share, which is equal to the par value of the Company’s common stock, and vests over four years. The fair value of the restricted stock is based on the Company’s closing stock price on the date of grant, and compensation expense net of estimated forfeitures is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.
We estimate the fair value of stock options granted using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. This model requires us to make estimates and assumptions including, among other things, estimates regarding the length of time an employee will retain vested stock options before exercising them, the estimated volatility of our common stock price using peer company volatility and the number of options that will be forfeited prior to vesting. Prior to January 1, 2016, the expected stock price volatility assumption was determined by examining the historical volatilities for industry peers. Effective January 1, 2016, the stock price volatility assumption was determined by examining a blend of the historical volatilities for industry peers and the trading history for the Company’s common stock.

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Option and restricted stock activity under the 2011 Plan for the six months ended June 30, 2016 was as follows (shares in thousands):
 
 
 
Options Outstanding
 
Restricted Stock
Outstanding
 
Shares and Units
Available
for Grant
 
Number
of Shares
 
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
 
Number
of Shares
Outstanding — December 31, 2015
7,055

 
10,616

 
$
4.79

 
4,552

Additional shares reserved under the 2011 equity incentive plan
3,478

 

 

 

Granted
(1,603
)
 
548

 
3.90

 
1,055

Options exercised/ Restricted stock released


 
(49
)
 
3.35

 
(880
)
RSU shares withheld for taxes
61

 

 

 
61

Canceled/Forfeited
1,299

 
(582
)
 
5.80

 
(717
)
Outstanding — June 30, 2016
10,290

 
10,533

 
$
4.70

 
4,071

The weighted average grant-date fair value of employee stock options granted during the three months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015 was $1.88 and $1.30 per share, respectively, and $1.99 and $1.30 for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The unamortized grant date fair value of both stock options and restricted stock awards totaled $18.0 million at June 30, 2016.

Employee Stock Purchase Plan

The Company’s 2011 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”) is intended to qualify under Section 423 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. Under the ESPP, employees are eligible to purchase common stock through payroll deductions of up to 10% of their eligible compensation, subject to any plan limitations. The purchase price of the shares on each purchase date is equal to 85% of the lower of the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the first and last trading days of each 12-month offering period.

The ESPP provides that additional shares are reserved under the plan annually on the first day of each fiscal year in an amount equal to the lesser of (i) 1.5 million shares, (ii) one percent of the outstanding shares of common stock on the last day of the immediately preceding fiscal year, or (iii) an amount determined by the board of directors and/or the compensation committee of the board of directors. On January 1, 2016, approximately 0.9 million additional shares were reserved under the ESPP pursuant to the plan's automatic increase provision. As of June 30, 2016, 1.6 million total shares had been issued under the ESPP and 3.3 million shares were available for future issuance.

Note 9 — Income Taxes
The Company is subject to taxation in the United States and various state and foreign jurisdictions. Earnings from non-U.S. activities are subject to local country income tax. The Company computes its quarterly income tax provision by using a forecasted annual effective tax rate and adjusts for any discrete items arising during the quarter. The primary difference between the effective tax rate and the federal statutory tax rate relates to the valuation allowances on the Company’s net operating losses and foreign tax rate differences. In the quarter ended June 30, 2016, the California Franchise Tax Board concluded their examination of the tax years 2008 through 2010 with no change to the tax returns filed. The tax years 2010 through 2016 remain subject to examination by other federal, state or foreign tax authorities.
The Company does not provide for federal income taxes on the undistributed earnings of its foreign subsidiaries as such earnings are to be reinvested indefinitely outside the United States In November 2015, the Philippine Economic Zone Authority granted a four year tax holiday to the Company's Philippine affiliate, commencing with its fiscal year, beginning January 1, 2016. The related aggregate dollar and earnings per share impact is not material.
Consistent with the Company’s practice in prior periods for assessing realization of deferred tax assets, management believes that based on the available objective evidence it is more likely than not that the tax benefits of the U.S. and Singapore losses will not be realized. As a result, the Company provided a valuation allowance for all U.S. federal deferred tax assets and for all Singapore deferred tax assets. The Company continues to record a state valuation allowance to reflect only the portion of state deferred tax assets that are more likely than not to be realized. Changes in tax laws and rates may affect other deferred tax assets and liabilities. These changes are accounted for in the period of enactment and are reflected in the Company’s June 30, 2016 financial results.

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For the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, the Company recorded income tax expense of $0.2 million and $1.5 million, respectively. This amount primarily consists of income and withholding taxes for foreign and state jurisdictions where the Company has profitable operations, as well as valuation allowance adjustments for certain U.S. tax jurisdictions. No tax benefit was provided for losses incurred in United States and Singapore because those losses are offset by a full valuation allowance.
The gross amount of the Company's unrecognized tax benefits was $0.9 million as of June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, none of which, if recognized, would affect the Company’s effective tax rate.

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015.
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward looking statements. These forward looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements related to changes in market conditions that impact our ability to generate service revenue on behalf of our clients; errors in estimates as to the service revenue we can generate for our clients; our ability to attract new clients and retain existing clients; risks associated with material defects or errors in our software or the effect of data security breaches; our ability to adapt our solution to changes in the market or new competition; our ability to improve our clients’ renewal rates, margins and profitability; our Opportunity Under Management; our ability to increase our revenue and contribution margin over time from new and existing customers, including as a result of sales of our next generation technology platform, Renew OnDemand, on a stand-alone subscription basis; our ability to implement Renew OnDemand, ServiceSource Revenue Analytics, ServiceSource Customer Success or our other SaaS technologies; our strategy with respect to our business services and SaaS businesses, cloud technologies and managed services and cost allocation and management efforts; the potential effect of mergers and acquisitions on our client base; business strategies and new sales initiatives; technology development; protection of our intellectual property; investment and financing plans; liquidity, our leverage consisting of convertible notes and related matters concerning our note hedges and warrants; our stock repurchase program; our competitive position; the effects of competition; industry environment; potential growth opportunities; our expected benefits from the acquisition of Scout Analytics; and our expected benefits from international expansion; our expected benefits from integrating managed services, cloud software and data. Forward looking statements are also often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward looking statements. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below, and those discussed in the section of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q titled “Risk Factors.” Furthermore, such forward looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.
All dollar amounts expressed as numbers in this MD&A are in millions unless otherwise noted.
OVERVIEW
ServiceSource International, Inc. (NASDAQ: SREV) is the global leader in customer and revenue lifecycle solutions that power enterprise revenue relationships. Based on the science of Revenue Lifecycle Management ("RLM"), ServiceSource provides some of the world's leading business to business ("B2B") companies with expert, technology-enabled services and solutions that are proven to grow and retain revenue from existing customers, directly or through a channel. With a holistic approach to managing the entire revenue lifecycle (which includes onboarding, client success, quoting, up-sell, cross-sell, warranty services and renewals), ServiceSource solutions help drive improved customer adoption, expansion and retention for our B2B clients.
Our solutions are comprised of a unique and precise mix of managed services, a purpose-built RLM technology platform and best-practice processes developed over more than 15 years of exclusive focus on revenue retention, revenue growth and customer success. With the experience of nearly $8.4 billion in recurring revenue sold in 2015 and global deployments across 40 languages and 150 countries, ServiceSource solutions can uniquely leverage industry and company data, leading-edge technology and best-practices drawn from our significant and in-depth database of renewal benchmarks. By integrating managed services, cloud software and data, we provide our clients with insights into their end customers’ businesses, end-to-

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end management and optimization of end customer onboarding, adoption, subscription, asset management, and service contract renewal processes whether managed by us directly or through our client’s channel partners.
Our managed services offering leverages either a pay-for-performance or a flat-rate model whereby our clients pay us a commission based on renewal sales that we generate on their behalf. Our cloud software technologies are an integral component to our unique RLM technology platform and may be managed by ServiceSource or provided directly to the client. Such cloud technologies include: ServiceSource Revenue Analytics, Renew OnDemand and the ServiceSource Customer Success application, all of which automate and provide data driven insights into these highly valuable but typically manual business processes. This blend of technology capabilities, managed services and best-practice process can drive higher subscription, maintenance and support revenue while improving customer retention and increasing business predictability.
The scalability of our solution enables us to sell in over 40 languages from six centers around the globe. Our solution is designed to optimize recurring revenue across different revenue models, distribution models, and segments, including hardware, software, SaaS, industrial systems, information and media, as well as technology-enabled health care and life sciences.
Our Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") is the chief operating decision maker and has historically managed the Company as two reportable segments: Managed Services and Cloud and Business Intelligence ("CBI") based on the discrete financial information available for each segment.  However, during the second half of 2015, we began implementing a series of actions to emphasizes a one-company, single go-to-market strategy for our services offering that resulted in the reorganization of our CBI personnel and sales team delivery structure. The objective of these actions was to more closely integrate and support the Managed Services organization with our cloud technologies and to eliminate new stand-alone CBI cloud offerings. Further, due to this reorganization and shift to a single go-to-market strategy, discrete cost information is no longer separately available for the former CBI segment. Consequently, beginning in the first quarter of 2016, our CEO manages and allocates resources on a company-wide basis as a single segment that is focused on service offerings which integrate data, processes and cloud technologies.
Key Business Metrics
In assessing the performance of our business, we consider a variety of business metrics in addition to the financial metrics discussed below under, “Basis of Presentation.” These key metrics include Opportunity Under Management and number of engagements, both of which are operational metrics.
Opportunity Under Management. At December 31, 2015, we estimated our Opportunity Under Management was approximately $9.9 billion. Opportunity Under Management is a operational metric that represents our estimate of the value of all end customer service contracts that we have the opportunity to sell on behalf of our clients over a designated period of time. In addition, we processed more than $4.0 billion of contract value through our cloud technologies in 2015 for which we received fees. Opportunity Under Management is not a measure of our expected revenue. Opportunity Under Management reflects our estimate over a designated period of time and should not be used to estimate our opportunity for any particular quarter within that period. Also, the value of end customer contracts actually delivered during a given period should not be expected to occur in even quarterly increments due to seasonality and other factors impacting our clients and their end customers. We estimate the value of such end customer contracts based on a combination of factors, including the value of end customer contracts made available to us by our clients in past periods, the minimum value of end customer contracts that our clients are required to give us the opportunity to sell pursuant to the terms of our contracts with them, periodic internal business reviews of our expectations as to the value of end customer contracts that will be made available to us by our clients, the value of end customer contracts included in the Service Performance Analysis ("SPA") and collaborative discussions with our clients assessing their expectations as to the value of service contracts that they make available to us for sale. While the minimum value of end customer contracts that our clients are required to give us represents a portion of our estimated Opportunity Under Management, a significant portion of the Opportunity Under Management is estimated based on the other factors described above. As our experience with our business, our clients and their contracts has grown, we have continually refined the process, improved the assumptions and expanded the data related to our calculation of Opportunity Under Management. When estimating Opportunity Under Management, we must, to a large degree, rely on the assumptions described above, which may prove incorrect. These assumptions are inherently subject to significant business and economic uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. Our estimates therefore may prove inaccurate, causing the actual value of end customer contracts delivered to us in a given period to differ from our estimate of Opportunity Under Management. These factors include:

the extent to which clients deliver a greater or lesser value of end customer contracts than may be required or
otherwise expected;
changes in the pricing or terms of service contracts offered by our clients;

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increases or decreases in the end customer base of our clients;
the extent to which the renewal rates we achieve on behalf of a client early in an engagement affect the amount of
opportunity that the client makes available to us later in the engagement;
client cancellations of their contracts with us; and
changes in our clients’ businesses, sales organizations, management, sales processes or priorities.
Our revenue also depends on our booking rates and commissions. Our bookings is the total amount of Opportunity Under Management that we renew on behalf of our clients. Our commission rate is an agreed-upon percentage of the renewal value of end customer contracts that we sell on behalf of our clients.
Our booking rate is impacted principally by our ability to successfully sell service contracts on behalf of our clients. Other factors impacting our booking rate include: the manner in which our clients price their service contracts for sale to their end customers; the stage of life-cycle associated with the products and underlying technologies covered by the service contracts offered to the end customer; the extent to which our clients or their competitors introduce new products or underlying technologies; the nature, size and age of the service contracts; and the extent to which we have managed the renewals process for similar products and underlying technologies in the past.
In determining commission rates for an individual engagement, various factors, including our booking rate, as described above, are evaluated. These factors include: historical, industry specific and client specific renewal rates for similar service contracts; the magnitude of the Opportunity Under Management in a particular engagement; the number of end customers associated with these opportunities; and the opportunity to receive additional performance commissions when we exceed certain renewal levels. We endeavor to set our commission rates at levels commensurate with these factors and other factors that may be relevant to a particular engagement. Accordingly, our commission rates vary, often significantly, from engagement to engagement. In addition, we sometimes agree to lower commission rates for engagements with significant Opportunity Under Management.
In 2015, we experienced a decline in Opportunity Under Management due to a number of contractions and non-renewals by some of our clients. We expect the reduction in Opportunity Under Management experienced in 2015 will continue to impact our revenues for the remainder of 2016 until we can replace this decline in Opportunity Under Management.
Number of Engagements. We track the number of engagements we have with our clients. We often have multiple engagements with a single client, particularly where we manage the sales of service renewals relating to different product lines, technologies, types of contracts or geographies for the customer. When the set of renewals we manage on behalf of a client is associated with a separate client contract or a distinct product set, type of end customer contract or geography and therefore requires us to assign a service sales team to manage the renewals, we designate the set of renewals and associated revenues and costs as a unique engagement. For example, we may have one engagement consisting of a service sales team selling maintenance contract renewals of a particular product for a client in the United States and another engagement consisting of a sales team selling warranty contract renewals of a different product for the same client in Europe. These would count as two engagements. We had 154, 191 and 150 engagements as of December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Factors Affecting our Performance
Sales Cycle. We sell our integrated solution through our sales organization. At the beginning of the sales process, our quota-carrying sales representatives contact prospective clients and educate them about our offerings. Educating prospective clients about the benefits of our solution can take time, as many of these prospects have not historically relied upon integrated solutions like ours for service revenue management, nor have they typically put out a formal request for proposal or otherwise made a decision to focus on this area. As part of our sales process, we utilize our solutions design team to perform an SPA of our prospect’s service revenue. The SPA includes an analysis of best-practices and benchmarks the prospect’s service revenue against industry peers. Through the SPA process, which typically takes several weeks, we are able to assess the characteristics and size of the prospect’s service revenue, identify potential areas of performance improvement, and formulate our proposal for managing the prospect’s service revenue. The length of our sales cycle for a new client, inclusive of the SPA process and measured from our first formal discussion with the client until execution of a new client contract, is typically longer than six months and has increased in recent periods.
We generally contract with new clients to manage a specified portion of their service revenue opportunity, such as the opportunity associated with a particular product line or technology, contract type or geography. We negotiate the engagement specific terms of our client contracts, including commission rates, based on the output of the SPA, including the areas identified for improvement. Once we demonstrate success to a client with respect to the opportunity under contract, we seek to expand the scope of our engagement to include other opportunities with the customer. For some customers, we manage all or substantially all of their service contract renewals.

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Implementation Cycle. After entering into an engagement with a new client, and to a lesser extent after adding an engagement with an existing client, we incur sales and marketing expenses related to the commissions owed to our sales personnel. These commissions are based on the estimated total contract value, with a material portion of the commission expensed upfront and the remaining portion expensed ratably over a period of twelve to fourteen months. We also make upfront investments in technology and personnel to support the engagement. These expenses are typically incurred one to three months before we begin generating sales and recognizing revenue. Accordingly, in a given quarter, an increase in new clients, and, to a lesser extent, an increase in engagements with existing clients, or a significant increase in the contract value associated with such new clients and engagements, will negatively impact our gross margin and operating margins until we begin to achieve anticipated sales levels associated with the new engagements, which is typically two to three quarters after we begin selling contracts on behalf of our clients.
Although we expect new client engagements to contribute to our operating profitability over time, in the initial periods of a client relationship, the near term impact on our profitability can be negatively impacted by slower-than anticipated growth in revenues for these engagements as well as the impact of the upfront costs we incur, the lower initial level of associated service sales team productivity and lack of mature data and technology integration with the client. As a result, an increase in the mix of new clients as a percentage of total clients may initially have a negative impact on our operating results. Similarly, a decline in the ratio of new clients to total clients may positively impact our near-term operating results.
Contract Terms. A significant portion of our revenue comes from our pay-for-performance model. Under our pay-for-performance model, we earn commissions based on the value of service contracts we sell on behalf of our clients. In some cases, we earn additional performance-based commissions for exceeding pre-determined service renewal targets.
Our new client contracts typically have an initial term between two and four years. Our contracts generally require our clients to deliver a minimum value of qualifying service revenue contracts for us to renew on their behalf during a specified period. To the extent that our customers do not meet their minimum contractual commitments over a specified period, they may be subject to fees for the shortfall. Our client contracts are cancelable on relatively short notice, subject in most cases to the payment of an early termination fee by the client. The amount of this fee is based on the length of the remaining term and value of the contract.
We invoice our clients on a monthly basis based on commissions we earn during the prior month, and with respect to performance-based commissions, on a quarterly basis based on our overall performance during the prior quarter. Revenue is recognized in the period in which our services are performed or, in the case of performance commissions, when the performance condition is achieved. Because the invoicing for our services generally coincides with or immediately follows the sale of service contracts on behalf of our clients, we do not generate or report a significant deferred revenue balance. However, the combination of factors such as, but not limited to, minimum contractual commitments, the performance improvement potential identified by our SPA process, our success in generating improved renewal rates for our customers, and our customers’ historical renewal rates, for example, help to provide us with revenue visibility, but may all affect our performance favorably or unfavorably.
M&A Activity. Our clients, particularly those in the technology sector, participate in an active environment for mergers and acquisitions. Large technology companies have maintained active acquisition programs to increase the breadth and depth of their product and service offerings and small and mid-sized companies have combined to better compete with large technology companies. A number of our clients have merged, purchased other companies or been acquired by other companies. We expect merger and acquisition activity to continue to occur in the future.
The impact of these transactions on our business can vary. Acquisitions of other companies by our customers can provide us with the opportunity to pursue additional business to the extent the acquired company is not already one of our customers. Similarly, when a client is acquired, we may be able to use our relationship with the acquired company to build a relationship with the acquirer. In some cases we have been able to maintain our relationship with an acquired customer even where the acquiring company handles its other service contract renewals through internal resources. In other cases, however, acquirers have elected to terminate or not renew our contract with the acquired company.
Economic Conditions and Seasonality. An improving economic outlook generally has a positive, but mixed, impact on our business. As with most businesses, improved economic conditions can lead to increased end customer demand and sales. In particular, within the technology sector, we believe that economic downturns lead many companies to cut their expenses by choosing to let their existing maintenance, support and subscription agreements lapse. An improving economy may have the opposite effect.
However, an improving economy may also cause companies to purchase new hardware, software and other technology products, which we generally do not sell on behalf of our clients, instead of purchasing maintenance, support and subscription services for existing products. To the extent this occurs, it would have a negative impact on our opportunities in the near term that would partially offset the benefits of an improving economy.

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We believe the current uncertainty in the economy, combined with shifting market forces toward subscription-based models, is impacting a number of our clients and prospective clients, particularly in the traditional enterprise software and hardware segments. These forces have placed pressure on end customer demand for their renewal contracts and also have led to some slower decision making in general. This economic and industry environment has adversely affected the conversion rates for end customers and contracts. To the extent these conditions continue they will impact our future revenues.
In addition to the uncertainty in the macroeconomic environment, we experience a seasonal variance in our revenue typically for the third quarter of the year as a result of lower or flat renewal volume corresponding to the timing of our customers’ product sales particularly in the international regions. The impact of this seasonal fluctuation can be amplified if the economy as a whole is experiencing disruption or uncertainty, leading to deferral of some renewal decisions. As we increase our subscription revenue base, this seasonality will become less apparent. However, for at least the foreseeable future, we would expect this pattern to continue.
Within the software industry, there is a growing trend toward providing software to clients using a SaaS model. Under this model, SaaS companies provide access to software applications to customers on a remote basis, and provide their customers with a subscription to use the software, rather than licensing software to their customers.
We have several SaaS-based applications that we develop and support: Renew OnDemand (our purpose-built offering to manage and maximize recurring revenue), ServiceSource Revenue Analytics (our SaaS offering to help companies with predictive analytics for recurring revenue), and other SaaS cloud technologies such as ServiceSource Customer Success. Our research and development costs are primarily related to these SaaS based applications and development of other technologies that are integrated with our overall solutions. We intend to maintain client support, training and professional service organizations to support deployments of our SaaS based applications and solutions. We expect our research and development costs to increase slightly for the remainder of 2016 as we complete the development of specific, major releases.
Basis of Presentation
Net Revenue
Substantially all of our net revenue is attributable to commissions we earn from the sale of renewals of maintenance, support and subscription agreements on behalf of our clients. We generally invoice our clients for our services in arrears on a monthly basis for sales commissions, and on a quarterly basis for certain performance sales commissions; accordingly, we typically have no deferred revenue related to these services. We do not set the price, terms or scope of services in the service contracts with end customers and do not have any obligations related to the underlying service contracts between our clients and their end customers.
We also earn revenue from the sale of subscriptions to our cloud based applications. To date, subscription revenue has been a small percentage of total revenue. We expect revenues generated from subscriptions of Renew OnDemand and ServiceSource SaaS cloud technologies to decline for the remainder of 2016. Subscription fees are accounted for separately from commissions, and they are billed in advance over a monthly, quarterly or annual basis. Subscription revenue is recognized ratably over the related subscription term.
We have generated a significant portion of our revenue from a limited number of clients. Our top ten customers accounted for 63% and 55% of our net revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Effective April 2015, our largest customer at that time reduced the scope of our managed services engagement with us and its subscription of our legacy system. Our Opportunity Under Management as of December 31, 2015 reflects this reduction.
The loss of revenue from any of our top clients for any reason, including the failure to renew our contracts, termination of some or all of our services, a change of relationship with any of our key clients or their acquisition, can cause a significant decrease in our revenue. We experienced a slight decrease in revenue in the six months ended June 30, 2016 related to cancellations and reductions in late 2014 and early 2015. The customer engagement cancellations and reductions in 2015 returned to historical rates after being above these historical averages in 2014. Since revenue recognized from client cancellations and reductions continues a quarter or two past the date of termination, depending on client contract, revenues in the first half of 2016 as compared to the prior year period are slightly impacted. The timing of cancellations and client reductions can have a material impact to our revenue.
Our business is geographically diversified. Through the first half of 2016, 64% of our net revenue was earned in North America and Latin America (“NALA”), 25% in Europe, Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”) and 11% in Asia Pacific-Japan (“APJ”). Net revenue for a particular geography generally reflects commissions earned from sales of service contracts managed from our sales centers in that geography. Predominantly all of the service contracts sold and managed by our sales centers relate to end customers located in the same geography. APJ is our newest region, and as a result accounts for less of our net revenue. In addition, our Kuala Lumpur and Manila locations are global service delivery centers where we have centralized, for our

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worldwide operations, the key contract renewal processes that do not require regional expertise, such as client data management and quoting.
Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit
Our cost of revenue expenses include employee compensation, technology costs, including those related to the delivery of our cloud-based technologies, and allocated overhead costs. Compensation expense includes salary, bonus, benefits and stock-based compensation for our dedicated service sales teams. Our allocated overhead includes costs for facilities, information technology and depreciation, including amortization of internal-use software associated with our service revenue technology platform and cloud applications. Allocated costs for facilities consist of rent, maintenance and compensation of personnel in our facilities departments. Our allocated costs for information technology include costs associated with third-party data centers where we maintain our data servers, compensation of our information technology personnel and the cost of support and maintenance contracts associated with computer hardware and software. To the extent our customer base or Opportunity Under Management expands, we may need to hire additional service sales personnel and invest in infrastructure to support such growth. Our cost of revenue may fluctuate significantly and increase or decrease on an absolute basis and as a percentage of revenue in the near term, including for the reasons discussed under, “Factors Affecting Our Performance-Implementation Cycle”. We saw material reductions in cost of revenue expenses in 2015 related primarily to our efforts to better align our personnel costs with the decrease in revenue during 2015. We expect cost of revenues to increase slightly throughout 2016 as additional cost reduction measures will be offset by incremental investments in technology, the addition of new service delivery centers and increased costs related to expansion of our annual contract value ("ACV"). Gross profit as a percent of revenue is expected to improve over prior year periods as we anticipate revenue growing faster than our cost of revenue.
Operating Expenses
Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses are a significant component of our operating costs and consist primarily of compensation expenses and sales commissions for our sales and marketing staff, allocated expenses and marketing programs and events. We sell our solutions through our global sales organization, which is organized across three geographic regions: NALA, EMEA and APJ. Our commission plans provide that payment of commissions to our sales representatives is contingent on their continued employment, and we recognize expense over a period that is generally between the contract signing date and twelve to fourteen months following the execution of the applicable contract. When commissions are paid upon contract signing and are not contingent on future payments and continued employment, we consider that portion of the commission to be earned and therefore expensed at contract signing. We currently expect sales and marketing expenses to be flat or slightly up for the remainder of the 2016 with some quarterly variability, and decrease or remain flat as a percentage of revenue in future years.
Research and Development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of employee compensation expense, allocated costs and the cost of third-party service providers. We focus our research and development efforts on developing new products and applications related to our technology platform. In connection with the development and enhancements of our SaaS cloud applications, we capitalize certain expenditures related to the development and enhancement of internal-use software related to our technology platform. We expect research and development spending to increase slightly for the remainder of 2016, and decrease or remain flat as a percentage of revenue in future years.
General and Administrative. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of employee compensation expense for our executive, human resources, finance and legal functions, and related expenses for professional fees for accounting, tax and legal services, as well as allocated expenses. We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase for the remainder of 2016 as we invest in additional facilities, expand our learning and development function and invest in additional information technology.
Restructuring and other. Restructuring and other expenses consist primarily of stock compensation expense related to the accelerated vesting of certain equity awards, employees' separation payments and related employee benefits and charges related to cancellation of contracts. We completed this restructuring in 2015.
Interest Expense and Other, Net
Interest expense. Interest expense consists primarily of interest expense associated with our convertible debt, imputed interest from capital lease payments, accretion of debt discount; and amortization of debt issuance costs. We recognize accretion of debt discount and amortization of interest costs using the effective interest method. We expect our interest expense to increase slightly for the remainder of 2016 from accretion of debt discount, amortization of deferred financing costs and contractual interest costs as a result of our August 2013 issuance of $150.0 million aggregate principal amount of convertible notes due August 2018.
Other, net. Other, net consists primarily of foreign exchange gains and losses and the interest income earned on our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities investments. We expect other income to vary depending on the movement in foreign

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currency exchange rates and the related impact on our foreign exchange gain (loss) and the return of interest on our investments.
Income Tax Provision (Benefit)
We account for income taxes using an asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences that currently exist between the tax basis and the financial reporting basis of our taxable subsidiaries’ assets and liabilities using the enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. The measurement of deferred tax assets is reduced, if necessary, by the amount of any tax benefits that, based on available evidence, are not expected to be realized.
We evaluate our ability to realize the tax benefits associated with deferred tax assets on a jurisdictional basis. This evaluation utilizes the framework contained in ASC 740, Income Taxes, wherein management analyzes all positive and negative evidence available at the balance sheet date to determine whether all or some portion of our deferred tax assets will not be realized. Under this guidance, a valuation allowance must be established for deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not (a probability level of more than 50 percent) that they will not be realized. In assessing the realization of our deferred tax assets, we consider all available evidence, both positive and negative, and place significant emphasis on guidance contained in ASC 740, which states that “a cumulative loss in recent years is a significant piece of negative evidence that is difficult to overcome.”
We account for unrecognized tax benefits using a more-likely-than-not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. We establish reserves for tax-related uncertainties based on estimates of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. We record an income tax liability, if any, for the difference between the benefit recognized and measured and the tax position taken or expected to be taken on our tax returns. To the extent that the assessment of such tax positions change, the change in estimate is recorded in the period in which the determination is made. The reserves are adjusted in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the outcome of a tax audit. The provision for income taxes includes the impact of reserve provisions and changes to reserves that are considered appropriate.

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Results of Operations
The table below sets forth our consolidated results of operations for the periods presented. As described in Note 1 of the Notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, the results of operations for the periods presented below have been restated to reflect prior period error correction to income tax expense. The period-to-period comparison of financial results presented below is not necessarily indicative of financial results to be achieved in future periods. 
 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
 
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in thousands)
Net revenue
$
61,969

 
$
61,613

 
$
121,719

 
$
127,810

Cost of revenue
40,344

 
42,692

 
81,778

 
88,507

Gross profit
21,625

 
18,921

 
39,941

 
39,303

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
11,326

 
10,165

 
21,779

 
21,000

Research and development
2,016

 
4,646

 
4,180

 
9,468

General and administrative
11,552

 
10,701

 
23,595

 
22,866

Restructuring and other

 
2,988

 

 
3,739

Total operating expenses
24,894

 
28,500

 
49,554

 
57,073

Loss from operations
(3,269
)
 
(9,579
)
 
(9,613
)
 
(17,770
)
Interest expense and other, net
(1,700
)
 
(2,739
)
 
(3,209
)
 
(4,584
)
Loss before income taxes
(4,969
)
 
(12,318
)
 
(12,822
)
 
(22,354
)
Income tax provision
249

 
1,134

 
1,537

 
1,313

Net loss
$
(5,218
)
 
$
(13,452
)
 
$
(14,359
)
 
$
(23,667
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
 
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in thousands)
Includes stock-based compensation of:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue
$
379

 
$
659

 
$
847

 
$
1,495

Sales and marketing
726

 
716

 
1,588

 
1,647

Research and development
144

 
444

 
341

 
991

General and administrative
1,087

 
1,158

 
2,419

 
3,411

Total stock-based compensation
$
2,336

 
$
2,977

 
$
5,195

 
$
7,544




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The following table sets forth our operating results as a percentage of net revenue:
 
Three Months Ended
June 30,
 
Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2016
 
2015
 
(as % of net revenue)
Net revenue
100
 %
 
100
 %
 
100
 %
 
100
 %
Cost of revenue
65
 %
 
69
 %
 
67
 %
 
69
 %
Gross profit
35
 %
 
31
 %
 
33
 %
 
31
 %
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
18
 %
 
16
 %
 
18
 %
 
16
 %
Research and development
3
 %
 
8
 %
 
3
 %
 
7
 %
General and administrative
19
 %
 
17
 %
 
19
 %
 
18
 %
Restructuring and other
 %
 
5
 %
 
 %
 
3
 %
Total operating expenses
40
 %
 
46
 %
 
40
 %
 
44
 %
Loss from operations
(5
)%
 
(15
)%
 
(7
)%
 
(13
)%
Three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and June 30, 2015

Net Revenue, Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit

 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
 
% Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
 
% Change
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
Net Revenue
$
61,969

 
$
61,613

 
$
356

 
1
 %
 
$
121,719

 
$
127,810

 
$
(6,091
)
 
(5
)%
Cost of Revenue
40,344

 
42,692

 
(2,348
)
 
(5
)%
 
81,778

 
88,507

 
(6,729
)
 
(8
)%
Gross Profit
$
21,625

 
$
18,921

 
$
2,704

 
14
 %
 
$
39,941

 
$
39,303

 
$
638

 
2
 %

Net revenue increased $0.4 million, or 1%, for the second quarter of 2016 compared to the second quarter of 2015. The overall increase in revenue was due to new customer engagement additions in excess of customer cancellations and reductions from the previous year. Customer cancellations and reductions in the number of customer engagements in the second quarter of 2016 were lower than previous quarters but continue to be slightly more than new business generated. We expect the effects of prior quarters’ cancellations and reductions to decline through the remainder of 2016.

The $2.3 million, or 5%, decrease in our cost of revenue in the second quarter of 2016 compared to the second quarter of 2015 reflects a $2.6 million decrease in employee related costs as a result of shifting headcount to lower cost offices and locations, all related to our continuous efforts to better align employee costs with revenue, a decrease of $1.5 million in temporary labor and consulting costs, offset by a $0.2 million increase in travel costs and $0.5 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense.

Gross profit in the second quarter of 2016 increased by $2.7 million, or 14%, compared to the same period in 2015 which is in line with the increase in revenue and proportionate reduction in employee related costs.

Net revenue decreased $6.1 million, or 5%, for the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2015. The overall decrease in revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2015 included revenue related to cancellations and reductions in late 2014 and early 2015.

The $6.7 million, or 8%, decrease in our cost of revenue in the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2015 reflects a $7.1 million decrease in employee related costs as a result of shifting headcount to lower cost offices and locations, all related to our continuous efforts to better align employee costs with revenue, a decrease of $1.8 million in temporary labor and consulting costs, offset by a $0.3 million increase in information technology costs, $0.1 million increase in travel costs and $1.0 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense.


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Gross profit in the six months ended June 30, 2016 increased by $0.6 million, or 2%, compared to the same period in 2015 which is in line with the decrease in revenue and proportionate reduction in employee related costs.

Operating Expenses
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
 
% Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
 
% Change
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
$
11,326

 
$
10,165

 
$
1,161

 
11
 %
 
$
21,779

 
$
21,000

 
$
779

 
4
 %
Research and development
2,016

 
4,646

 
(2,630
)
 
(57
)%
 
4,180

 
9,468

 
(5,288
)
 
(56
)%
General and administrative
11,552

 
10,701

 
851

 
8
 %
 
23,595

 
22,866

 
729

 
3
 %
Restructuring and other

 
2,988

 
(2,988
)
 
(100
)%
 

 
3,739

 
(3,739
)
 
(100
)%
Total operating expenses
$
24,894

 
$
28,500

 
$
(3,606
)
 
(13
)%
 
$
49,554

 
$
57,073

 
$
(7,519
)
 
(13
)%
Includes stock-based compensation of:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
$
726

 
$
716

 
$
10

 
 
 
$
1,588

 
$
1,647

 
$
(59
)
 
 
Research and development
144

 
444

 
(300
)
 
 
 
341

 
991

 
(650
)
 
 
General and administrative
1,087

 
1,158

 
(71
)
 
 
 
2,419

 
3,411

 
(992
)
 
 
Total stock-based compensation
$
1,957

 
$
2,318

 
$
(361
)
 
 
 
$
4,348

 
$
6,049

 
$
(1,701
)
 
 
Sales and marketing expenses
The $1.2 million, or 11%, increase in sales and marketing expenses in the second quarter of 2016 compared to the second quarter of 2015 resulted from a $1.3 million increase in employee related costs and $0.2 million increase in travel costs. Offsetting this increase was a $0.3 million decrease in marketing costs.
The $0.8 million, or 4%, increase in sales and marketing expenses in the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2015 resulted from a $1.6 million increase in employee related costs and $0.4 million increase in travel costs. These increases were offset by a $1.0 million decrease in marketing programs costs and $0.1 million decrease in temporary labor and consulting costs.
Research and development expenses
The $2.6 million, or 57%, decrease in research and development expense in the second quarter of 2016 compared to the second quarter of 2015 was primarily due to a $1.6 million decrease in employee related costs associated with a decrease in headcount, $0.7 million decrease in temporary labor and consulting costs and $0.2 million decrease in information technology costs.
Internal-use software development capitalization increased by $1.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2015, primarily due to new development efforts related to our Renew on Demand and internal managed services platforms.
The $5.3 million, or 56%, decrease in research and development expense in the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2015 was primarily due to $3.4 million decrease in employee related costs associated with a decrease in headcount, $1.4 million decrease in temporary labor and consulting costs and $0.3 million decrease in information technology costs.
Internal-use software development capitalization increased by $3.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2015, primarily due to continued development efforts related to our Renew on Demand and internal managed services platforms. We expect to continue to invest in our technology platforms to support our services offering and thus capitalizing internal-use software costs in the future. However, the amount capitalized will depend on the future level of expenditures on research and development.
General and administrative expenses

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The $0.9 million, or 8%, increase in general and administrative expense in the second quarter of 2016 compared to the second quarter of 2015 reflected a $1.7 million increase in employee related costs, offset by a $0.4 million decrease in temporary labor and consulting costs and $0.1 million decrease in recruiting costs.
The $0.7 million, or 3%, increase in general and administrative expense in the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2015 reflected a $1.1 million increase in employee related costs, offset by a $0.2 million decrease in temporary labor and recruiting costs and $0.1 million decrease in depreciation costs.
Restructuring and other expenses
The $3.0 million, or 100%, decrease in restructuring and other in the second quarter of 2016 compared to the second quarter of 2015 was due to the Company completing restructuring efforts in 2015.
The $3.7 million, or 100%, decrease in restructuring and other in the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2015 was due to the Company completing restructuring efforts in 2015.
Interest Expense and Other, Net
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
 
% Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
 
% Change
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
Interest expense
$
2,719

 
$
2,589

 
$
130

 
5
%
 
$
5,400

 
$
5,097

 
$
303

 
6
%
Other, net
(1,019
)
 
150

 
(1,169
)
 
779
%
 
(2,191
)
 
(513
)
 
(1,678
)
 
327
%

Interest expense increased by $0.1 million, or 5%, in the second quarter of 2016 compared to the second quarter of 2015 was due to the increased accretion of debt discount under the effective interest method related to the convertible notes issued in August 2013.
Other, net increased by $1.2 million, or 779%, in the three months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2015, and was primarily due to foreign currency gains as a result of the U.S. dollar strengthening against the Euro and other foreign currencies of countries where we have operations.

Interest expense increased by $0.3 million, or 6%, in the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the six months ended June 30, 2015 was due to the increased accretion of debt discount under the effective interest method related to the convertible notes issued in August 2013.
Other, net increased by 1.7 million, or 327%, in the six months ended June 30, 2016 compared to the three months ended June 30, 2015, and was primarily due to foreign currency gains as a result of the U.S. dollar strengthening against the Euro and other foreign currencies of countries where we have operations.
Income Tax Provision
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
 
% Change
 
2016
 
2015
 
Change
 
% Change
 
(in thousands)
 
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
Income tax provision
$
249

 
$
1,134

 
$
(885
)
 
*
 
$
1,537

 
$
1,313

 
$
224

 
*
*Not considered meaningful.
For the second quarter of 2016, we recorded income tax expense of $0.2 million. This amount primarily represents anticipated taxes in jurisdictions where we have profitable operations, including certain U.S. states and foreign jurisdictions. No benefit was provided for losses incurred in U.S. and Singapore because those losses are offset by a full valuation allowance.
For the six months ended June 30, 2016, we recorded income tax expense of $1.5 million. This amount primarily represents $1.2 million of anticipated taxes in jurisdictions where we have profitable operations, including certain U.S. state and foreign jurisdictions and $0.3 million of valuation allowance that reflects the portion of certain state deferred tax assets that are more likely than not to be realized. No benefit was provided for losses incurred in U.S. and Singapore because those losses are offset by a full valuation allowance.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources
At June 30, 2016, we had cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments of $194.0 million, which primarily consisted of demand deposits, money market mutual funds, corporate bonds and United States government obligations held by well-capitalized financial institutions. In addition, at June 30, 2016, we had cash and cash equivalents of $9.4 million held outside of the U.S. by our foreign subsidiaries that was generated by such subsidiaries and which is used to satisfy their current operating requirements. We consider the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries to be indefinitely reinvested in foreign operations and we do not have current plans to repatriate these earnings to fund our U.S. operations as we have sufficient cash, cash-equivalents and short-term investments held in the United States.
Our primary operating cash requirements include the payment of compensation and related costs, working capital requirements related to accounts receivable and accounts payable, as well as costs for our facilities and information technology infrastructure. Historically, we have financed our operations principally from cash provided by our operating activities, proceeds from stock offerings and the exercise of stock options. We believe our existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments will be sufficient to meet our working capital and capital expenditure needs for at least the next twelve months.
In August 2013, we issued $150 million aggregate principal amount of 1.50% convertible notes due August 1, 2018 (the “Notes”) and concurrently entered into convertible notes hedges and separate warrant transactions. The Notes will mature on August 1, 2018, unless converted earlier. Upon conversion, the Notes will be settled in cash, shares of our stock, or any combination thereof, at our option. We received proceeds of $145.1 million from the issuance of the convertible notes, net of associated fees, received $21.8 million from the issuance of the warrants and paid $31.4 million for the note hedges. The Notes were not subject to conversion or repurchase at June 30, 2016 and are classified as a noncurrent liability on our condensed consolidated balance sheet.
Share Repurchase Program
In August 2015, the Board authorized a stock repurchase program with a maximum authorization repurchase up to $30.0 million worth of common stock of the Company. The program expires in August 2017. The aggregate amount available under the program was approximately $19.9 million at June 30, 2016. The program does not obligate the Company to acquire any specific number of shares. Under the program, shares may be repurchased in privately negotiated and/or open market transactions, including under plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
During the six months ended June 30, 2016, the Company repurchased 2.3 million shares of its common stock under the program at an average price of $3.94 per share for a total of $8.9 million. All repurchases were made using cash resources, and the reacquired shares were retired upon repurchase.
Letter of Credit and Restricted Cash
In May 2015 the Company commenced a 7-year office lease expiring in November 2022 for a new corporate headquarters in San Francisco, California. In connection with this new lease commitment, the Company was required to issue a $1.2 million letter of credit to the landlord. The letter of credit is secured by $1.2 million of a money market account which is classified as restricted cash in our condensed consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2016.
Summary Cash Flows
The following table sets forth a summary of our cash flows (in thousands):
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2016
 
2015
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
8,320

 
$
3,314

Net cash used in investing activities
(15,738
)
 
(16,948
)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
(8,285
)
 
853

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents, net of impact of exchange rate changes on cash
(17,038
)
 
(12,337
)
Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities was $8.3 million during the six months ended June 30, 2016. Net loss during the period was $14.4 million adjusted by non-cash charges of $7.6 million for depreciation and amortization, $4.2 million of amortization of debt discount and issuance costs, $0.9 million for deferred income taxes and $5.2 million for stock-based compensation. Cash provided by operations as a result of the changes in our working capital include a $2.3 million decrease in accounts receivable, net, a $0.3 million decrease in deferred revenue, a $0.8 million increase in accounts payable, a $0.3 million increase in accrued compensation and benefits and a $1.0 million increase in accrued expenses.

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Net cash provided by operating activities was $3.3 million during the six months ended June 30, 2015. Net loss during the period was $23.6 million adjusted by non-cash charges of $6.8 million for depreciation and amortization, $3.9 million of amortization of debt discount and issuance costs, $3.5 million of restructuring and other charges, and $7.5 million for stock-based compensation. Cash generated from operations during the six months ended June 30, 2015 resulted from sequential changes in our working capital including a $11.8 million decrease in accounts receivable, a $2.1 million decrease in accounts payable, a $1.6 million decrease in accrued compensation and benefits, and a $2.4 million decrease in accrued expenses.
Investing Activities
During the six months ended June 30, 2016 cash used in investing activities was principally related to the net purchase, sale and maturities of short-term investments of $1.4 million and property and equipment additions of $14.3 million. Property and equipment additions include $6.3 million of capitalized internal-use software development cost.
During the six months ended June 30, 2015 cash used in investing activities was principally related to the net purchase, sale and maturities of short-term investments of $10.6 million, property and equipment addition of $5.1 million and $1.2 million increase in restricted cash related to a letter of credit required for our new San Francisco facility lease. Property and equipment additions include $3.1 million of capitalized internal-use software development cost.
Financing Activities
Cash used in financing activities of $8.3 million in the six months ended June 30, 2016 primarily resulted from the $8.9 million repurchase of common stock offset by the exercise of common stock options and the purchase of common stock under our employee stock purchase plan of $0.7 million.
Cash provided by financing activities of $0.9 million in the six months ended June 30, 2015 primarily resulted from the exercise of common stock options and the purchase of common stock under our employee stock purchase plan of $0.9 million.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have any relationships with other entities or financial partnerships such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special-purpose entities, which have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
In April 2016, the Company signed a 6-year office lease expiring in July 2022, for a new sales center in Singapore to occupy 17,626 square feet. The total minimum lease payments are estimated to be approximately $4.8 million over the lease term.
In July 2016, the Company signed a 5-year office lease expiring in December 2021, for an additional floor in the existing service delivery center in the Philippines to occupy 21,915 square feet. The total minimum lease payments are estimated to be approximately $3.5 million over the lease term.
There have been no other material changes in our contractual obligations and commercial commitments other than in the ordinary course of business since the end of fiscal 2015.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Management has determined that our most critical accounting policies are those related to revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, goodwill and intangible assets and income taxes. There have been no material changes in our critical accounting policies and estimates during the six months ended June 30, 2016 as compared to the critical accounting policies and estimates disclosed in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations–Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015 as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 8, 2016 except as described below.
We estimate the fair value of stock options granted using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. This model requires us to make estimates and assumptions including, among other things, estimates regarding the length of time an employee will retain vested stock options before exercising them, the estimated volatility of our common stock price using peer company volatility and the number of options that will be forfeited prior to vesting. Prior to January 1, 2016, the expected stock price volatility assumption was determined by examining the historical volatilities for industry peers. Effective January 1, 2016, the stock price volatility assumption was determined by examining a blend of the historical volatilities for industry peers and the trading history for the Company’s common stock.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

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The information contained in Note 1 to our condensed consolidated financial statements in Item 1 under the heading, “Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements,” is incorporated by reference into this Item 2.
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We believe that there have been no significant changes in our market risk exposures for the six months ended June 30, 2016, as compared with those discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
(a)Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) of the end of the period covered by this report (the “Evaluation Date”).
In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.
Based on management’s evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to, and are effective to, provide assurance at a reasonable level that the information we are required to disclose in reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in Securities and Exchange Commission rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
(b)Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of any changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during our most recently completed fiscal quarter. Based on that evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that there has not been any change in our internal control over financial reporting during the quarter covered by this report that materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings
On July 8, 2015, a single plaintiff filed a putative securities class action lawsuit, Weller v. ServiceSource International, Inc. et al., in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (the “Weller Lawsuit”) against the Company and the Company’s former Chief Executive Officer. The Weller Lawsuit was brought on behalf of purchasers of Company stock during the period January 22, 2014 through May 1, 2014, and alleges violations under Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act").   In connection with the mandatory lead plaintiff appointment process under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act (PSLRA), various law firms issued press releases between July 2015 and September 2015 to search for additional shareholders that would be willing to serve as lead plaintiffs in this lawsuit.  This solicitation period ended on September 29, 2015 and no other shareholders came forward, leaving only the named plaintiff as the sole shareholder seeking to be appointed lead plaintiff.  The court appointed Weller a lead plaintiff on October 21, 2015. At this time, no motion to certify a class has been filed. The Company believes that the claims are meritless, and will vigorously defend itself against such claims. On December 9, 2015, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the Weller Lawsuit.  The motion has been fully briefed, and the parties are awaiting a ruling from the court.
From time to time, the Company may be subject to other litigation or threatened litigation arising in the ordinary course of our business. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, the Company is currently not aware of any litigation or threats of litigation in which the final outcome could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial position, or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on the Company because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, and other factors. The Company records a contingent liability when it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount is reasonably estimable in accordance with accounting for contingencies.
ITEM 1A.
Risk Factors
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below and the other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. If any of the following risks are realized, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, the trading price of our common stock could be materially and adversely affected. The risks described below are not the only risks facing us. Risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and the trading price of our common stock.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our business and growth depend substantially on clients renewing their agreements with us and expanding their use of our solution for additional available markets. Any decline in our client renewals, termination of ongoing engagements or failure to expand their relationships with us could harm our future operating results.
In order for us to improve our operating results and grow, it is important that our clients renew their agreements with us when the initial contract term expires and that we expand our client relationships to add new market opportunities and the related revenue management opportunity. Our clients may elect not to renew their contracts with us after their initial terms have expired or may elect to otherwise terminate our services, and we cannot assure you that our clients will renew service contracts with us at the same or higher level of service, if at all, or provide us with the opportunity to manage additional revenue management opportunities. Although our renewal rates have been historically higher than those achieved by our clients prior to their using our solution, some clients have still elected not to renew their agreements with us. Our clients’ renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our solution and results, our pricing, mergers and acquisitions affecting our clients or their end customers, the effects of economic conditions or reductions in our clients’ or their end customers’ spending levels. If our clients do not renew their agreements with us, renew on less favorable terms, terminate their services with us or fail to contract with us for additional Opportunity Under Management, our revenue may decline and our operating results may be adversely affected.
Our revenue will decline if there is a decrease in the overall demand for our clients’ products and services for which we provide service revenue management.
Our revenue is based on a pay-for-performance model under which we are paid a commission based on the service contracts we sell on behalf of our clients. If a particular client’s products or services fail to appeal to its end customers, our revenue will decline for our work with that client. In addition, if end customer demand decreases for other reasons, such as

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negative news regarding our clients or their products, unfavorable economic conditions, shifts in strategy by our clients away from promoting the service contracts we sell in favor of selling their other products or services to their end customers, or if end customers experience financial constraints and terminate or fail to renew the service contracts we sell, we may experience a decrease in our revenue as the demand for our clients’ service contracts declines. Similarly, if our clients come under economic pressure, they may be more likely to terminate their contracts with us and/or seek to restructure those contracts, and for clients whose contracts are up for renewal, they may seek to renew those contracts on less favorable terms. We experienced a decline in our Opportunity Under Management from our clients in 2015 as compared to 2014 and in 2014 as compared to 2013. We expect that the Opportunity Under Management reduction in 2014 and 2015 will continue to impact our results into 2016. If we continue to experience such a decline in Opportunity Under Management, our revenue and results of operations will be adversely affected.
If booking rates fall short of our estimates, our client relationships will be at risk, our revenue will suffer and our ability to grow and achieve broader market acceptance of our solution could be harmed.
Given our pay-for-performance pricing model, our revenue is directly tied to booking rates. Booking rates represent the percentage of the actual Opportunity Under Management delivered that we renew on behalf of our clients. If the booking rate for a particular client is lower than anticipated, then our revenue for that client will also be lower than projected. If booking rates fall short of expectations across a broad range of clients, or if they fall below expectations for a particularly large client, then the impact on our revenue and our overall business will be significant. In the event booking rates are lower than expected for a given client, our margins will suffer because we will have already incurred a certain level of costs in both personnel and infrastructure to support the engagement. This risk is compounded by the fact that many of our client relationships are terminable if we fail to meet certain specified sales targets over a sustained period of time. If actual booking rates fall to a level at which our revenue and client contracts are at risk, then our financial performance will decline and we will be severely compromised in our ability to retain and attract new clients. Increasing our client base and achieving broader market acceptance of our solution depends, to a large extent, on how effectively our solution increases service sales. As a result, poor performance with respect to our booking rates, in addition to causing our revenue, margins and earnings to suffer, will likely damage our client relationships and overall reputation, and prevent us from effectively developing and maintaining awareness of our brand or achieving widespread acceptance of our solution, in which case we could fail to grow our business and our revenue, margins and earnings would suffer.
The loss of one or more of our key clients could slow our revenue growth or cause our revenue to decline.
A substantial portion of our revenue to date has come from a relatively small number of clients. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2015 our top ten clients accounted for 57% of our revenue, with two clients each representing over 9% of our revenue during this period. A relatively small number of clients may continue to account for a significant portion of our revenue for the foreseeable future. The loss of revenue from any of our significant clients for any reason, including the failure to renew our contracts, termination of some or all of our services, a change of relationship with any of our key clients or their acquisition as discussed below, may cause a significant decrease in our revenue.
Our restructuring plans may not produce anticipated benefits and may lead to charges that will adversely affect our results of operations.
Commencing in the second half of 2014, we implemented restructuring and other cost-reduction plans designed to reduce our overhead and our operating expenses. As we experience changes in our strategy, we will continue to determine whether additional restructuring efforts are required. These restructuring efforts may result in significant restructuring charges that may adversely affect our results of operations for the periods in which such charges occur. Additionally, actual costs related to such restructuring plans may exceed the amounts that we previously estimated, leading to additional charges as actual costs are incurred.
We also continue to invest and re-focus our efforts to improve efficiency in our business. These investments and changes will relate to technology, processes, and people. If such changes do not result in the improvements we expect, we could see a decrease in our performance in certain accounts, lower client satisfaction, and therefore increased client churn.
Our quarterly results of operations may fluctuate as a result of numerous factors, many of which may be outside of our control.
Our quarterly operating results are likely to fluctuate. Some of the important factors that may cause our revenue, operating results and cash flows to fluctuate from quarter to quarter include:
our ability to attract new clients;

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our ability to retain existing clients and/or maintain the size of our engagements with those clients;
the renewal rates we achieve early in an engagement and the time it takes to achieve the booking rates expected for the term of the engagement;
our ability to effectively sell and implement our cloud technologies;
fluctuations in the value of end customer contracts delivered to us;
fluctuations in booking rates;
changes in our commission rates;
seasonality;
loss of clients for any reason including due to acquisition;
the mix of new clients as compared to existing clients;
the length of the sales cycle for our solution, and our level of upfront investments prior to the period we begin generating revenue associated with such investments;
the timing of client payments and payment defaults by clients;
the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the operations of our business, including the development of new products or cloud technologies;
the rate of expansion, productivity and realignment of our direct sales force;
the occurrence of management and employee turnover;
the cost and timing of the introduction of new technologies or new services, including additional investments in our cloud technologies;
general economic conditions;
technical difficulties or interruptions in delivery of our solution;
changes in foreign currency exchange rates;
changes in tax rates;
regulatory compliance costs, including data privacy;
costs associated with acquisitions of companies and technologies;
changes in our stock price and the impact of such changes on our convertible notes and related note hedges and warrants;
the effects of our stock repurchase program;
extraordinary expenses such as litigation or other dispute-related settlement payments; and
the impact of new accounting pronouncements.
Many of the above factors are discussed in more detail elsewhere in these Risk Factors. Many of these factors are outside our control, and the variability and unpredictability of such factors could result in our failing to meet our revenue or operating results expectations for a given period. In addition, the occurrence of one or more of these factors might cause our operating results to vary widely which could lead to negative impacts on our margins, short-term liquidity or ability to retain or attract key personnel, and could cause other unanticipated issues. Accordingly, we believe that quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our revenue, operating results and cash flows may not be meaningful and should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance.
Our client relationships and overall business will suffer if our cloud technologies do not meet expectations or if we encounter significant problems implementing them for our clients.

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Since 2012, we have offered Renew OnDemand, our next-generation service revenue management platform on a subscription basis. We have expanded into other cloud technologies such as ServiceSource Revenue Analytics and ServiceSource Customer Success on the salesforce.com platform. Renew OnDemand and our cloud technologies remains relatively new and we have limited experience selling and/or implementing it for clients, as well as limited experience migrating clients from our traditional platform to Renew OnDemand. Given the complexity and significance of this ongoing transition, including as a result of the amount of client data within our systems that will need to be accessed and migrated, our client relationships, our reputation, and our overall business could be severely damaged if our implementations or migrations are poorly executed. In addition, we expect to incur additional expenses as a result of our 2016 plans to run dual technology platforms as we move toward broad use and adoption of certain cloud and technologies internally while maintaining our existing technology platform. Similarly our business operations and client relationships will be at high risk if our cloud technologies do not meet our performance expectations or those of our clients. This could harm our business in numerous ways including, without limitation, a loss of revenue and client contracts and damage to our reputation.
If we cannot efficiently implement our offering for clients, we may be delayed in generating revenue, fail to generate revenue and/or incur significant costs.
In general, our client engagements are complex and may require lengthy and significant work to implement our offerings. Changes in our go-to-market and technology strategies also will increase costs and create implementation risks for us. We also have limited experience implementing our current cloud technologies in general. As a result, we generally incur sales and marketing expenses related to the commissions owed to our sales representatives and make upfront investments in technology and personnel to support the engagements one to three months before we begin selling end customer contracts. Each client’s situation may be different, and unanticipated difficulties and delays may arise as a result of our failure, or that of our client, to meet respective implementation responsibilities. If the client implementation process is not executed successfully or if execution is delayed, we could incur significant costs without yet generating revenue, and our relationships with some of our clients may be adversely impacted.
The market for our solution is relatively undeveloped and may not grow.
The market for recurring revenue management is still relatively undeveloped, has not yet achieved widespread acceptance and may not grow quickly or at all. In addition, we are still promoting market acceptance of our cloud technologies. Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the willingness of companies to engage a third party such as us to manage the sales of their support, maintenance and subscription contracts and subscribe for our cloud technologies. Many companies have invested substantial personnel, infrastructure and financial resources in their own internal service revenue organizations or in some cases have built or modified software applications to help manage renewals, and therefore may be reluctant to switch to a solution such as ours. Companies may not engage us for other reasons, including a desire to maintain control over all aspects of their sales activities and end customer relations, concerns about end customer reaction, a belief that they can sell their support, maintenance and subscription services more cost-effectively using their internal sales organizations, perceptions about the expenses associated with changing to a new approach and the timing of expenses once they adopt a new approach, general reluctance to adopt any new and different approach to old ways of doing business, or other considerations that may not always be evident. New concerns or considerations may also emerge in the future. Particularly because our market is relatively undeveloped, we must address our potential clients’ concerns and explain the benefits of our approach in order to convince them to change the way that they manage the sales of support, maintenance and subscription contracts. If companies are not sufficiently convinced that we can address their concerns and that the benefits of our solution are compelling, then the market for our solution may not develop as we anticipate and our business will not grow.
Delayed or unsuccessful investment in new technology, services and markets may harm our financial results.
We plan to invest significant resources in research and development and general and administrative in order to enhance our managed services offerings and SaaS cloud technologies and other new offerings that will appeal to clients and potential clients. We have undertaken the development of our cloud technologies, including enhancements to our applications to offer improved and more scalable revenue management. In addition, we have continued to develop our cloud technologies to utilize a salesforce.com based platform for our solutions. The development of new products and services entails a number of risks that could adversely affect our business and operating results, including:
the risk of diverting the attention of our management and our employees from the day-to-day operations of the business;
insufficient revenue to offset increased expenses associated with research, development, operational and marketing activities; and
write-offs of the value of such technology investments as a result of unsuccessful implementation or otherwise.

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If our cloud technologies or any of our other new or modified technology do not work as intended, are not responsive to user preferences or industry or regulatory changes, are not appropriately timed with market opportunity, or are not effectively brought to market, we may lose existing and potential clients or related revenue opportunities, in which case our results of operations may suffer. The cost of future development of new revenue management offerings or technologies also could require us to raise additional debt or equity financing. These actions could be dilutive to our stockholders and negatively impact our financial condition or our results of operations.
The anticipated benefits of our integration of separate business units may not materialize, and such integration could adversely affect our business and therefore may be re-evaluated in the future.
Since 2014, we have separately operated our CBI unit and our Managed Services unit, though both units retain the same finance, legal, human resources, and high level executive oversight. The anticipated operating efficiencies and cost savings of separately operating these business units were not fully realized for a variety of reasons. Because of this, we have integrated these two lines of business into one beginning in the first quarter of 2016. The integration may result in the future disruption of our operations, diverting management attention from other business operations, failure to obtain anticipated growth rates, a loss of employee morale and productivity, including the effects of employee attrition, and higher than projected costs. If the anticipated benefits of integrating our business units are not realized, our future growth rates and results of operations may be harmed.
Our estimates of Opportunity Under Management and other metrics may prove inaccurate.
We use various estimates in formulating our business plans and analyzing our potential and historical performance, including our estimate of Opportunity Under Management. We base our estimates upon a number of assumptions that are inherently subject to significant business and economic uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. Our estimates therefore may prove inaccurate.
Opportunity Under Management is an operational metric that represents our estimate, over a designated period of time, of the value of all end customer service contracts that we have the opportunity to sell on behalf of our clients. Opportunity Under Management is not a measure of our expected revenue. We estimate the value of such end customer contracts based on a combination of factors, including the value of end customer contracts made available to us by clients in past periods; the minimum value of end customer contracts that our clients are required to give us the opportunity to sell pursuant to the terms of their contracts with us; periodic internal business reviews of our expectations as to the value of end customer contracts that will be made available to us by clients; the value of end customer contracts included in the SPA; and collaborative discussions with our clients assessing their expectations as to the value of service contracts that they make available to us for sale. While the minimum value of end customer contracts that our clients are required to give us represents a portion of our estimated Opportunity Under Management, a significant portion of the Opportunity Under Management is estimated based on the other factors described above.
When estimating Opportunity Under Management and other similar metrics, we must, to a large degree, rely on the assumptions described above, which may prove incorrect. These assumptions are inherently subject to significant business and economic uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. Our estimates therefore may prove inaccurate, causing the actual value of end customer contracts delivered to us in a given period to differ from our estimate of Opportunity Under Management. These factors include:
the extent to which clients deliver a greater or lesser value of end customer contracts than may be required or otherwise expected;
changes in the pricing or terms of service contracts offered by our clients;
increases or decreases in the end customer base of our clients;
the extent to which the renewal rates we achieve on behalf of a client early in an engagement affect the amount of opportunity that the client makes available to us later in the engagement;
client cancellations of their contracts with us due to acquisitions or otherwise; and
changes in our clients’ businesses, sales organizations, sales processes or priorities, including changes in executive support for our partnership.
In addition, Opportunity Under Management reflects our estimates over a designated period of time and should not be used to estimate our historical or future opportunity for any particular quarter within that period.

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If our security measures are breached or fail, resulting in unauthorized access to client data, our solution may be perceived as insecure, the attractiveness of our solution to current or potential clients may be reduced and we may incur significant liabilities.
Our solution involves the storage and transmission of the proprietary information and protected data that we receive from our clients. We rely on proprietary and commercially available systems, software, tools and monitoring, as well as other processes, to provide security for processing, transmission and storage of such information. If our security measures are breached or fail as a result of third-party action, employee negligence, error, malfeasance or otherwise, unauthorized access to client or end customer data may occur. Improper activities by third parties, advances in computer and software capabilities and encryption technology, new tools and discoveries and other events or developments may facilitate or result in a compromise or breach of our computer systems. Techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate protective measures. Our security measures may not be effective in preventing these types of activities, and the security measures of our third-party data centers and service providers may not be adequate.
Our client contracts generally provide that we will indemnify our clients for data privacy breaches. If such a breach occurs, we could face contractual damages, damages and fees arising from our indemnification obligations, penalties for violation of applicable laws or regulations, possible lawsuits by affected individuals and significant remediation costs and efforts to prevent future occurrences. Insurance may not be able to cover these costs in full, in particular if the damages are large. In addition, whether there is an actual or a perceived breach of our security, the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures could be harmed significantly and we could lose current or potential clients.
We may be liable to our clients or third parties if we make errors in providing our solution or fail to properly safeguard our clients' confidential information.
The solution we offer is complex, and we make errors from time to time. These may include human errors made in the course of managing the sales process for our clients as we interact with their end customers, or errors arising from our technology solution as it interacts with our clients’ systems and the disparate data contained on such systems. Errors may also arise from the launch of and migration of our current technologies to the cloud technologies. The costs incurred in correcting any material errors may be substantial. In addition, as part of our business, we collect, process and analyze confidential information provided by our clients and prospective clients. Although we take significant steps to safeguard the confidentiality of client information, we could be subject to claims that we disclosed their information without appropriate authorization or used their information inappropriately. Any claims based on errors or unauthorized disclosure or use of information could subject us to exposure for damages, significant legal defense costs, adverse publicity and reputational harm, regardless of the merits or eventual outcome of such claims.
We have sold subscriptions to our cloud technologies separately from our integrated solution, and performing our obligations on these subscriptions could impact our operating results.

We derive a portion of our revenue from subscriptions to our cloud technologies for a few clients. We no longer offer these stand-alone subscriptions to new customers. We have encountered technical and execution challenges that undermine the quality of the technology offering or have caused us to fall short of client expectations, and may continue to encounter, in the future for the period in which we will be required to continue performing our obligations on these subscriptions. Continuing to manage and perform our obligations on these existing subscription engagements may lead to a diversion of financial and managerial resources from our existing business and an inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset the costs of these subscription accounts, which would harm our results of operations.
Changes in the U.S. and foreign legal and regulatory environment that affect ou